A young woman plops on the couch, turns on the TV, and as her favorite reality show casts a blue glow across the living room … she also boots up her smartphone to check on her friends in Facebook and … also swipes open her iPad to play Words with Friends.
All at the same time.
Marketers who want to reach a consumer on all devices concurrently often struggle with understanding how these touchpoints interconnect. The biggest challenge is consumers often use all these devices for different things. While TV is on for video entertainment, mobile devices are used more often for playing games or participating in social media.
Behind this is the fast-growing trend of, yes, people using mobile gadgets plus TV at exactly the same time. BI Intelligence just reported that 45% of all smartphone use by U.S. consumers age 16-44 is done with the TV on, as well as 37% of laptop use and 55% of tablet use. If mobile is ascendent, TV seems to be its constant companion.
To address this puzzle, we’ve searched for frameworks on how people actually use different screens at the same time — and found the best from Monique Leech, an analyst at global research firm Millward Brown. With a hat tip to Leech, here’s our own interpretation of her findings: there are three core ways people use multiple devices and each requires a unique marketing strategy.
Meshing: ‘Hey look, tennis is on ESPN. Let’s read tennis.com too!’
“Meshing” is when people use two or more devices to watch directly related content. For instance, when Jane Smith was watching the Super Bowl on TV a few years ago, she was surprised by a blackout in the stadium lights, and turned to Twitter on her handset to chat about it. Oreo famously leaped on this moment by tweeting “You can still dunk in the dark,” and Jane would have laughed. Marketers who want to leverage “meshing” behavior can either target integrated advertising content, such as a buy on a weekend sports event and a concurrent media buy on ESPN.com, or deploy “real-time marketing” responses on social media during major awards shows or sports events.
Alas, meshing is only part of the story, and typically not the dominant form of concurrent media use. Putting an ad on Tennis.com to match a pro tennis tournament on TV at the same time may not always be the best approach. The next behavior, “stacking,” explains why.
Stacking: ‘Hey look, Walking Dead is on TV. But let’s chat on Facebook too!’
“Stacking” behavior is different, and more common, in which, say, James Smith is watching “The Walking Dead” on television while simultaneously chatting with buddies on Facebook via his iPhone. Stacking means adding different content from one device to unrelated content on another media device, all at the same time. Numerous studies show this is the dominant form of concurrent device usage. Salesforce.com recently monitored 470 consumers for a month and found they spent an average of 3.3 hours on smartphones per day with the top activities being emailing, searching the Internet, or social networking. Tablet behavior was similar, with social networking and reading at top. What’s most interesting is so few reported watching TV-related content simultaneously on mobile gadgets, it didn’t make the list.
For marketers, this means you can’t just buy ads on CNN.com to align with viewers watching CNN on TV. Instead, you must explore audience targeting across content platforms at simultaneous times, to reach consumers on Facebook or in a game while they watch a show on television.
Shifting: ‘This content is fun, but I’ll pause now and continue it later.’
The third form of multiple device usage, “shifting,” is one of shifting from one gadget to another while pursuing related content. This could be as direct as watching part of a Netflix movie on a tablet and finishing it on TV, or more nuanced such as researching a trip to Italy on a smartphone and then completing the reservation via a computer browser window.
This “shifting” device behavior poses two challenges for marketers, in targeting and measurement. For targeting, it requires understanding how different media touchpoints may be used in sequence for a consumer to learn about, explore, consider, and then consummate a desired action — and for measurement, it means the combined impact of all these channels must be evaluated not in silos, but by their cumulative lift in results.
Three puzzles, not one
The punchline is each type of behavior poses unique challenges. You can try to intercept consumers who mesh their related content, but be aware they may actually be using different content at the same time. You can also try to reach consumers as they stack different content on different devices, but to do so you’ll need to be more clever in how you coordinate your ad messages. And for consumers who shift across devices pursing related content, you’ll need expert measurement systems to understand this pathway and how to influence it.